Arteriosclerosis occurs when the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients from your heart to the rest of your body (arteries) become thick and stiff — sometimes restricting blood flow to your organs and tissues. Healthy arteries are flexible and elastic, but over time, the walls in your arteries can harden, a condition commonly called hardening of the arteries.
Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, but the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Atherosclerosis refers to the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls (plaques), which can restrict blood flow.
These plaques can burst, triggering a blood clot. Although atherosclerosis is often considered a heart problem, it can affect arteries anywhere in your body. Atherosclerosis may be preventable and is treatable.
Causes--Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may begin as early as childhood. Although the exact cause is unknown, atherosclerosis may start with damage or injury to the inner layer of an artery. The damage may be caused by:
·         High blood pressure
·         High cholesterol
·         High triglycerides, a type of fat (lipid) in your blood
·         Smoking and other sources of tobacco
·         Insulin resistance, obesity or diabetes
·         Inflammation from diseases, such as arthritis, lupus or infections, or inflammation of unknown cause
Once the inner wall of an artery is damaged, blood cells and other substances often clump at the injury site and build up in the inner lining of the artery.
Over time, fatty deposits (plaques) made of cholesterol and other cellular products also build up at the injury site and harden, narrowing your arteries. The organs and tissues connected to the blocked arteries then don't receive enough blood to function properly.
Eventually, pieces of the fatty deposits may break off and enter your bloodstream.
In addition, the smooth lining of a plaque may rupture, spilling cholesterol and other substances into your bloodstream. This may cause a blood clot, which can block the blood flow to a specific part of your body, such as occurs when blocked blood flow to your heart causes a heart attack. A blood clot can also travel to other parts of your body, blocking flow to another organ.
Symptoms--Atherosclerosis develops gradually. Mild atherosclerosis usually doesn't have any symptoms.
You usually won't have atherosclerosis symptoms until an artery is so narrowed or clogged that it can't supply adequate blood to your organs and tissues. Sometimes a blood clot completely blocks blood flow, or even breaks apart and can trigger a heart attack or stroke.
Symptoms of moderate to severe atherosclerosis depend on which arteries are affected. For example:
If you have atherosclerosis in your heart arteries, you may have symptoms, such as chest pain or pressure (angina).
If you have atherosclerosis in the arteries leading to your brain, you may have signs and symptoms such as sudden numbness or weakness in your arms or legs, difficulty speaking or slurred speech, temporary loss of vision in one eye, or drooping muscles in your face. These signal a transient ischemic attack (TIA), which, if left untreated, may progress to a stroke.
If you have atherosclerosis in the arteries in your arms and legs, you may have symptoms of peripheral artery disease, such as leg pain when walking (claudication).
If you have atherosclerosis in the arteries leading to your kidneys, you develop high blood pressure or kidney failure.
Risk factors--Hardening of the arteries occurs over time. Besides aging, factors that increase the risk of atherosclerosis include:
·         High blood pressure
·         High cholesterol
·         Diabetes
·         Obesity
·         Smoking and other tobacco use
·         A family history of early heart disease
·         Lack of exercise
·         An unhealthy diet
Complications--The complications of atherosclerosis depend on which arteries are blocked. For example:
Coronary artery disease. When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries close to your heart, you may develop coronary artery disease, which can cause chest pain (angina), a heart attack or heart failure.
Carotid artery disease. When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries close to your brain, you may develop carotid artery disease, which can cause a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke.
Peripheral artery disease. When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries in your arms or legs, you may develop circulation problems in your arms and legs called peripheral artery disease. This can make you less sensitive to heat and cold, increasing your risk of burns or frostbite. In rare cases, poor circulation in your arms or legs can cause tissue death (gangrene).
Aneurysms. Atherosclerosis can also cause aneurysms, a serious complication that can occur anywhere in your body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the wall of your artery.
Most people with aneurysms have no symptoms. Pain and throbbing in the area of an aneurysm may occur and is a medical emergency.
If an aneurysm bursts, you may face life-threatening internal bleeding. Although this is usually a sudden, catastrophic event, a slow leak is possible. If a blood clot within an aneurysm dislodges, it may block an artery at some distant point.
Chronic kidney disease. Atherosclerosis can cause the arteries leading to your kidneys to narrow, preventing oxygenated blood from reaching them. Over time, this can affect your kidney function, keeping waste from exiting your body.
Well selected Homoeopathic remedies are effective for arteriosclerosis. Along with follow strict diet restrictions.

AURUM METALLICUM  30-Aurum met is one of the best remedies for arteriosclerosis with valvular lesions. There is a sensation as if heart stopped beating for two or three seconds, immediately followed by tumultuous rebound  with sinking at epigastrium. The patient is suffering from high blood pressure. Pulse rapid, feeble and irregular. Pain beneath the breast bone at night Oppression at the heart and having violent palpitations .Mentally the patient is highly depressed , always talk of committing suicide but fear of death. The person is hopeless with grief.

BARYTA  CARBONICUM 30-Baryta carb is another effective remedy for arteriosclerosis with hypertension and aneurysms. Pulse full and hard. Palpitation when lying on left side or when thinking of it.There is senile dementia , leading to confusion and mental weakness.

BARYTA MURIATICUM 30-Baryta mur is excellent for arteriosclerosis of aorta and large blood vessels.The heart beat is irregular and the pulse scarcely perceptible. The bllod pressure is increased and throbbing of the heart increased. Elderly person have asthma, headaches, vertigo, and tinnitus.

CACTUS GRANDIFLOROUS Q-Cactus grandiflorous is effective for arteriosclerosis with marked heart weakness. The heart feels clutched and released alternately by an iron band. Palpitation worse lying on left side, with vertigo, dyspnoea and flatulence.

CONIUM MACULATUM 200- Conium mac is best for arteriosclerosis with violent palpitations. Palpitations worse exertion , drinking, at stools . Pulse unequal and irregular. There is weakness of mind and body with vertigo, trembling and palpitations.

CONVALLARIA MAJALIS Q-Convallaria majalis is excellent for arteriosclerosis of cigarette smokers. Sensation as if the heart  ceased beating , and then starting very suddenly. Another feature is extremely rapid and irregular pulse. Feeling as if heart beat throughout the chest.

CRATAEGUS  OXYCANTHA Q-Crataegus is considered a heart tonic. Crataegus has got great solvent powers upon calcerous and crustaceous deposits in the lumen and arteries. There is least dysponea on least exertion. Extreme shortage of breath with heart pain .The pulse is irregular , feeble and intermittent.

NATRUM IDATUM 30- Natrum iodatum is for arteriosclerosis with angina pectoris , vertigo and dyspnea.

PLUMBM METALLICUM 30- Plumbum met is best for arteriosclerosis of anemic , weak persons and those suffering from hypertension. There is painful constriction of peripheral arteries. The pulse soft, small , dicrotic, wiry, slow, sinks even to 40. Plumbum is more indicated when chronic nephritis occurs.  

SECALE CORNUTUM 6X- Secale cor is more indicated in the early hardening of arteries , which is rapidly progressive. Secale cor is indicated for arteriosclerosis with ice-cold extremities. There is boring pain in the chest. Dyspnea and oppression occurs with cramps in the diaphragm. Palpitation with intermittent pulse.

STRONTIUM CARBONICUM 30-Stronium carb is best for arteriosclerosis with high blood pressure producing a flushed face and pulsating arteries. There is violent beating of arteries and heart. Strontium is also good for arteriosclerosis with vertigo and nausea.

STROPHANTHUS HISP. Q-Strophanthus is best for arteriosclerosis, especially tobacco smokers.The arteries are very rigid and the pulse is rapid, alternating with slow, weak, small and irregular. Cardiac pain and dyspnea.

TABACUM 30- Tabacum is best for hardening of coronary arteries.There is violent palpitations, worse lying on left side. Pulse thread, intermittent , hard , cord like and imperceptible.

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