Gingivitis is a common and mild form of gum disease (periodontal disease) that causes irritation, redness and swelling (inflammation) of your gingiva, the part of your gum around the base of your teeth. It's important to take gingivitis seriously and treat it promptly. Gingivitis can lead to much more serious gum disease called periodontitis and tooth loss.
The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene. Good oral health habits, such as brushing at least twice a day, flossing daily and getting regular dental checkups, can help prevent and reverse gingivitis.
Causes-- The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene that encourages plaque to form on teeth, causing inflammation of the surrounding gum tissues. Here's how plaque can lead to gingivitis:
Plaque forms on your teeth. Plaque is an invisible, sticky film composed mainly of bacteria that forms on your teeth when starches and sugars in food interact with bacteria normally found in your mouth. Plaque requires daily removal because it re-forms quickly.
Plaque turns into tartar. Plaque that stays on your teeth can harden under your gumline into tartar (calculus), which collects bacteria. Tartar makes plaque more difficult to remove, creates a protective shield for bacteria and causes irritation along the gumline. You need professional dental cleaning to remove tartar.
Gingiva become inflamed (gingivitis). The longer that plaque and tartar remain on your teeth, the more they irritate the gingiva, the part of your gum around the base of your teeth, causing inflammation. In time, your gums become swollen and bleed easily. Tooth decay (dental caries) also may result. If not treated, gingivitis can advance to periodontitis and eventual tooth loss.
Symptoms- Healthy gums are firm and pale pink and fitted tightly around the teeth. Signs and symptoms of gingivitis include:
·         Swollen or puffy gums
·         Dusky red or dark red gums
·         Gums that bleed easily when you brush or floss
·         Bad breath
·         Receding gums
·         Tender gums
Risk factors- Gingivitis is common, and anyone can develop it. Factors that can increase your risk of gingivitis include:
·         Poor oral care habits
·         Smoking or chewing tobacco
·         Older age
·         Dry mouth
·         Poor nutrition, including vitamin C deficiency
·         Dental restorations that don't fit properly or crooked teeth that are difficult to clean
·         Conditions that decrease immunity such as leukemia, HIV/AIDS or cancer treatment
·         Certain drugs, such as phenytoin (Dilantin, Phenytek) for epileptic seizures, and some calcium channel blockers, used for angina, high blood pressure and other conditions
·         Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy, menstrual cycle or use of birth control pills
·         Genetics
·         Medical conditions such as certain viral and fungal infectio
Complications- Untreated gingivitis can progress to gum disease that spreads to underlying tissue and bone (periodontitis), a much more serious condition that can lead to tooth loss.
Chronic gingiva inflammation has been thought to be associated with some systemic diseases such as respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. Some research suggests that the bacteria responsible for periodontitis can enter your bloodstream through gum tissue, possibly affecting your heart, lungs and other parts of your body. But more studies are needed to confirm a link.
Trench mouth, also known as necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG), is a severe form of gingivitis that causes painful, infected, bleeding gums and ulcerations. Trench mouth is rare today in developed nations, though it's common in developing countries that have poor nutrition and poor living conditions.
Well selected Homoeopathic remedies are effective for inflammation of gums. Some of the important remedies are given below.

MERCURIUS SOL 30-Merc sol is one of the top remedy for inflammation of gums. Merc sol is prescribed where the gums inflamed , painful which is purple, swollen and spongy. Sometimes toothache associated with inflammation of gums. The gums recede , bleed and the tooth loose. Another marked feature is increased salivation accompanied with this complaint.

KREOSOTUM 30-Kreosotum is another effective remedy for gingivitis with rapid decay of teeth. The gums inflamed, turned bluish, spongy and bleeding. Putrid odour and bitter taste in mouth. Teeth appears dark, crumbly and black spots on teeth.

CARBO VEGETABILIS 30-Carbo veg is effective for inflammation of gums with scorbutic gums. Blood oozes from the gums when cleaning teeth. Gums retracted and bleed easily, painful while chewing. Gums turned black. Bad smell and sour , bitter taste in mouth.

ALUMEN 30- Alumen is best for gingivitis with loose teeth. Gums swollen, inflamed and spongy. Teeth and gums scorbutic.

LACHESIS 30-Lachesis is best for inflammation of gums with bluish appearance. The gum swollen, spongy and easily bleeding. There is bad odour and sour peppery taste in mouth. If with toothache the pain extends to ears.

PHOSPHORUS 30-Phosphorus is another top medicine for inflammation of gums with bleeding. The gums bleeding easily, sore behind incisors. Pain get worse from cold heat and while eating. Salty or sweetish saliva.

SILICEA 30-Silicea is best for inflammation of gums where the gum is sensitive to cold air and cold water. Water tastes badly and vomits after drinking. There is an offensive odour from mouth and the mouth feels dry.

STAPHYSAGRIA  30-Staphysagria is best for inflammation of gums with teeth decay. The gums pale , swollen and bleed easily . There is much salivation. Teeth black and crumbling. Musty taste in mouth.

THUJA OCCIDENTALIS 200-Thuja is indicated for inflammation of gums with tooth decay. Teeth decay at the edge of gums , crumble, turn yellow. Gums very sensitive and retract.

EXTERNAL APPLICATION-- Externally massage the gums with a glycerol of Belladonna, Calendula, Echinacea or Symphytum.

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