Autism spectrum disorder is a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interaction and communication. The disorder also includes limited and repetitive patterns of behavior. The term "spectrum" in autism spectrum disorder refers to the wide range of symptoms and severity.
Autism spectrum disorder includes conditions that were previously considered separate — autism, Asperger's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and an unspecified form of pervasive developmental disorder.
Autism spectrum disorder begins in early childhood and eventually causes problems functioning in society — socially, in school and at work, for example. Often children show symptoms of autism within the first year. A small number of children appear to develop normally in the first year, and then go through a period of regression between 18 and 24 months of age when they develop autism symptoms.
Autism spectrum disorder has no single known cause. Given the complexity of the disorder, and the fact that symptoms and severity vary, there are probably many causes. Both genetics and environment may play a role.
Genetics. Several different genes appear to be involved in autism spectrum disorder. For some children, autism spectrum disorder can be associated with a genetic disorder, such as Rett syndrome or fragile X syndrome. For other children, genetic changes (mutations) may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Still other genes may affect brain development or the way that brain cells communicate, or they may determine the severity of symptoms. Some genetic mutations seem to be inherited, while others occur spontaneously.
Environmental factors. Researchers are currently exploring whether factors such as viral infections, medications or complications during pregnancy, or air pollutants play a role in triggering autism spectrum disorder.
Some children show signs of autism spectrum disorder in early infancy, such as reduced eye contact, lack of response to their name or indifference to caregivers. Other children may develop normally for the first few months or years of life, but then suddenly become withdrawn or aggressive or lose language skills they've already acquired. Signs usually are seen by age 2 years.
Each child with autism spectrum disorder is likely to have a unique pattern of behavior and level of severity — from low functioning to high functioning.
Some children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty learning, and some have signs of lower than normal intelligence. Other children with the disorder have normal to high intelligence — they learn quickly, yet have trouble communicating and applying what they know in everyday life and adjusting to social situations.
Because of the unique mixture of symptoms in each child, severity can sometimes be difficult to determine. It's generally based on the level of impairments and how they impact the ability to function.
Below are some common signs shown by people who have autism spectrum disorder.
Social communication and interaction
A child or adult with autism spectrum disorder may have problems with social interaction and communication skills, including any of these signs:
· Fails to respond to his or her name or appears not to hear you at times
· Resists cuddling and holding, and seems to prefer playing alone, retreating into his or her own world
· Has poor eye contact and lacks facial expression
· Doesn't speak or has delayed speech, or loses previous ability to say words or sentences
· Can't start a conversation or keep one going, or only starts one to make requests or label items
· Speaks with an abnormal tone or rhythm and may use a singsong voice or robot-like speech
· Repeats words or phrases verbatim, but doesn't understand how to use them
· Doesn't appear to understand simple questions or directions
· Doesn't express emotions or feelings and appears unaware of others' feelings
· Doesn't point at or bring objects to share interest
· Inappropriately approaches a social interaction by being passive, aggressive or disruptive
· Has difficulty recognizing nonverbal cues, such as interpreting other people's facial expressions, body postures or tone of voice
Patterns of behavior
A child or adult with autism spectrum disorder may have limited, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities, including any of these signs:
· Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand flapping
· Performs activities that could cause self-harm, such as biting or head-banging
· Develops specific routines or rituals and becomes disturbed at the slightest change
· Has problems with coordination or has odd movement patterns, such as clumsiness or walking on toes, and has odd, stiff or exaggerated body language
· Is fascinated by details of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a toy car, but doesn't understand the overall purpose or function of the object
· Is unusually sensitive to light, sound or touch, yet may be indifferent to pain or temperature
· Doesn't engage in imitative or make-believe play
· Fixates on an object or activity with abnormal intensity or focus
· Has specific food preferences, such as eating only a few foods, or refusing foods with a certain texture
The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is rising. It's not clear whether this is due to better detection and reporting or a real increase in the number of cases, or both.
Autism spectrum disorder affects children of all races and nationalities, but certain factors increase a child's risk. These may include:
Your child's sex. Boys are about four times more likely to develop autism spectrum disorder than girls are.
Family history. Families who have one child with autism spectrum disorder have an increased risk of having another child with the disorder. It's also not uncommon for parents or relatives of a child with autism spectrum disorder to have minor problems with social or communication skills themselves or to engage in certain behaviors typical of the disorder.
Other disorders. Children with certain medical conditions have a higher than normal risk of autism spectrum disorder or autism-like symptoms. Examples include fragile X syndrome, an inherited disorder that causes intellectual problems; tuberous sclerosis, a condition in which benign tumors develop in the brain; and Rett syndrome, a genetic condition occurring almost exclusively in girls, which causes slowing of head growth, intellectual disability and loss of purposeful hand use.
Extremely preterm babies. Babies born before 26 weeks of gestation may have a greater risk of autism spectrum disorder.
· Parents' ages. There may be a connection between children born to older parents and autism spectrum disorder, but more research is necessary to establish this link.
Problems with social interactions, communication and behavior can lead to:
· Problems in school and with successful learning
· Employment problems
· Inability to live independently
· Social isolation
· Stress within the family
· Victimization and being bullied
Homoeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world.Its strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When Autism spectrum disorder is concerned there are many effective medicines are available in Homoeopathy, but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient, considering the mental and physical symptoms.
CARCINOSIN 200-----History of cancer in the family. Desire for milk. Sweat on head. Desire for salty things. Restlessness. Talented , but are obsessive , compulsive , stubborn . Sleep related issues. Mental retardation. Hyperactivity. Attention deficit syndrome. Aversion to reprimand or contradiction. Fastidious. Loves the excitement of thunderstorms.
BARYTA CARBONICUM 200----Poor socialization, communication and language skills. Shyness is another leading symptom. Shy of strangers. Bashful. Timid. Cowardly. Hides behind the furniture and keeps the hands over the face , peeping through the fingers. Weak memory. Forgets her errand or word in her mouth.Childish and thoughtless behavior. Slow mental grasp and backward.
BELLADONNA 200---- Hyperactivity, poor communication, echolalia . Self injurious behavior, biting, jumping etc. Constant moaning. Starts in fright at the approach of others. Spits on faces of other persons. Quarrelsome.
BUFO RANA 200---—Handling of genitals and nervous agitation. The mind remains childish, only the body grows. Moral de. Talks nonsense , then angry, if not understood. Propensity to bite. Howling , impatient, nervous, imbecility.
CALCAREA PHOSPHORICUM 200-------Hyperactivity behavior with stereotypy. Excitable nervous and sleepless. Talks rapidly and easily angered.
COFFEA 200----- Sleep dysfunction, especially late sleeping. Nervous agitation. Cry and laugh easily.
HYOSCYAMUS NIGER 200--- –Eating or drinking dysfunction, escaping , running , jumping , foolish laughter . Inclined to laugh at everything. Very suspicious. Plays with fingers.
KALI BROMATUM 200--—Hyperactivity and short attention span.Fidgety, busy hands, fumbles. Moves arms about widely. Omits or mixes up words in talking and writing.
KALI PHOSPHORICUM 200--- Nervous agitation leading to sleep deprivation. Children cry and screams. Shy. Indisposition to meet people.
MERCURIUS SOL 200-----Stammering, nervous with tremors. Profuse salivation.
PHOSPHORUS 200--- Audio visual sensitivities . Unnatural fears , especially dark, desire to be hugged, pressurized ,flapping of fingers. Oversensitive to external impressions. Desires ice creams and cold drinks.
SILICEA 200--- Pica. Difficulty for eye to eye contact. Nervous, excitable. Sensitive to all impressions. Screaming violently. Starts from slight noise.
STRAMONIUM 200----- Hyperactivity, stammering Fears darkness , must have light and company. Face shows expression of terror.
SULPHUR 200----Poor bowel control, lack of communication, lethargy, laziness . Dull, difficult, thinking , misplaces or cannot find proper words when talking or writing. Aversion to being washed. Restless, kick off the clothes at night. Stoop shouldered.
VERATRUM ALB. 200----- Hyperactivity and produce vague humming sound. Howling all night.
THUJA OCCIDENTALIS 200---Complaints after vaccination. Speech slow, hunts for words. Over excited, angry.
SYPHILINUM 200-----Intercurrent remedy.