Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer is cancer of the last several inches of the colon. Together, they're often referred to as colorectal cancers.
Most cases of colon cancer begin as small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps. Over time some of these polyps become colon cancers.
Polyps may be small and produce few, if any, symptoms. For this reason, doctors recommend regular screening tests to help prevent colon cancer by identifying and removing polyps before they become colon cancer
Causes-. In most cases, it's not clear what causes colon cancer. Doctors know that colon cancer occurs when healthy cells in the colon develop errors in their DNA.
Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But when a cell's DNA is damaged and becomes cancerous, cells continue to divide — even when new cells aren't needed. As the cells accumulate, they form a tumor.
With time, the cancer cells can grow to invade and destroy normal tissue nearby. And cancerous cells can travel to other parts of the body.
Inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of colon cancer
Inherited gene mutations that increase the risk of colon cancer can be passed through families, but these inherited genes are linked to only a small percentage of colon cancers. Inherited gene mutations don't make cancer inevitable, but they can increase an individual's risk of cancer significantly.
The most common forms of inherited colon cancer syndromes are:
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). HNPCC, also called Lynch syndrome, increases the risk of colon cancer and other cancers. People with HNPCC tend to develop colon cancer before age 50.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). FAP is a rare disorder that causes you to develop thousands of polyps in the lining of your colon and rectum. People with untreated FAP have a greatly increased risk of developing colon cancer before age 40.
FAP, HNPCC and other, rarer inherited colon cancer syndromes can be detected through genetic testing. If you're concerned about your family's history of colon cancer, talk to your doctor about whether your family history suggests you have a risk of these conditions.

Association between diet and increased colon cancer risk

Studies of large groups of people have shown an association between a typical Western diet and an increased risk of colon cancer. A typical Western diet is high in fat and low in fiber.
When people move from areas where the typical diet is low in fat and high in fiber to areas where the typical Western diet is most common, the risk of colon cancer in these people increases significantly. It's not clear why this occurs, but researchers are studying whether a high-fat, low-fiber diet affects the microbes that live in the colon or causes underlying inflammation that may contribute to cancer risk. This is an area of active investigation and research is ongoing
Symptoms-- Signs and symptoms of colon cancer include:
·         A change in your bowel habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your stool, that lasts longer than four weeks
·         Rectal bleeding or blood in your stool
·         Persistent abdominal discomfort, such as cramps, gas or pain
·         A feeling that your bowel doesn't empty completely
·         Weakness or fatigue
·         Unexplained weight loss
Many people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. When symptoms appear, they'll likely vary, depending on the cancer's size and location in your large intestine.
Risk factors- Factors that may increase your risk of colon cancer include:
Older age. The great majority of people diagnosed with colon cancer are older than 50. Colon cancer can occur in younger people, but it occurs much less frequently.
African-American race. African-Americans have a greater risk of colon cancer than do people of other races.
A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps. If you've already had colon cancer or adenomatous polyps, you have a greater risk of colon cancer in the future.
Inflammatory intestinal conditions. Chronic inflammatory diseases of the colon, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, can increase your risk of colon cancer.
Inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk. Genetic syndromes passed through generations of your family can increase your risk of colon cancer. These syndromes include familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, which is also known as Lynch syndrome.
Family history of colon cancer. You're more likely to develop colon cancer if you have a parent, sibling or child with the disease. If more than one family member has colon cancer or rectal cancer, your risk is even greater.
Low-fiber, high-fat diet. Colon cancer and rectal cancer may be associated with a diet low in fiber and high in fat and calories. Research in this area has had mixed results. Some studies have found an increased risk of colon cancer in people who eat diets high in red meat and processed meat.
A sedentary lifestyle. If you're inactive, you're more likely to develop colon cancer. Getting regular physical activity may reduce your risk of colon cancer.
Diabetes. People with diabetes and insulin resistance may have an increased risk of colon cancer.
Obesity. People who are obese have an increased risk of colon cancer and an increased risk of dying of colon cancer when compared with people considered normal weight.
Smoking. People who smoke may have an increased risk of colon cancer.
Alcohol. Heavy use of alcohol may increase your risk of colon cancer.
Radiation therapy for cancer. Radiation therapy directed at the abdomen to treat previous cancers may increase the risk of colon cancer.
There are some medicines in Homoeopathy which help in the treatment of colorectal cancer. The important medicines are given below-

CARCINOSIN 200- Start treatment with this remedy.
ALUMINA 30—Alumina is one of the top remedies for colorectal cancer.  Severe constipation is the marked feature in such cases. The stools are hard, dry, knotty , which may remain in the rectum for long periods without desire to pass stool. Even a soft stool is passed with great difficulty. The patient has to strain  a great to pass stool.The evacuation preceded by painful urging long before and then straining at stool.

ALOEO SOCORINA 30-Aloes is another effective medicine for colorectal cancer. Aloes is prescribed where  persistent painful diarrhea is present. The stool is preceded with cutting pain in rectum and lot of mucus with pain in rectum after stool. There is a sense of insecurity in rectum . The stool passes without effort, almost unnoticed. The stool may contain blood, mucus with burning in anus. Abdomen feels full, heavy, hot and bloated. Severe weakness after stool.

HYDRASTIS  CANADENSIS 3X-Hydrastis can is another excellent remedy for colorectal cancer with constipation. There is a sinking feeling in stomach with constipation.There is bleeding from bowel.  Raw smarting pain in the rectum during stool , remaining long afterwards. Sometimes there may be inflammation of rectum.

NITRIC ACID 30-Nitric acid is best for colorectal cancer with profuse bleeding of bright red blood during stool. There is violent cutting pain in rectum , which continues many hours after stool. Due to pain the patient walks in agony. The bowels constipated with fissures in rectum. For passing stool the patient straining much, but little passes.

ORNITHOGALUM UMBELLATUM Q- Ornithogalum is best for cancer of caecum and appendix with great debility. There is a feeling of lump in the abdomen in the affected area with vomiting of coffee ground looking matter.The patient is highly depressed and have great prostration.

RUTA GRAVEOLENS 30-Ruta is prescribed for colorectal cancer where carcinoma affected the lower  bowel with a feeling of extreme weakness and despair. Constipation alternating with mucus, frothy stools, discharge of blood with stool. Frequent unsuccessful urging to stool.

SEPIA 30—Sepia is effective for colorectal cancer with obstinate constipation.There is a feeling of weight or ball in rectum which is not relieved by stool. There is bleeding during stool with fullness of rectum. Constipation with no urging for days. Costipation with large, hard stools, cannot strain with great tenesmus. Pain shoot up in rectum during stool. There may be sometimes prolapsed of rectum may be seen. Pain in abdomen, which is better while drawing limbs up.

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