Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, usually in your legs. Deep vein thrombosis can cause leg pain or swelling, but may occur without any symptoms.
Deep vein thrombosis can develop if you have certain medical conditions that affect how your blood clots. Deep vein thrombosis can also happen if you don't move for a long time, such as after surgery, following an accident, or when you are confined to a hospital or nursing home bed.
Deep vein thrombosis is a serious condition because blood clots in your veins can break loose, travel through your bloodstream and lodge in your lungs, blocking blood flow (pulmonary embolism).
Causes-Deep vein thrombosis occurs when a blood clot forms in the veins that are deep in your body, often in your legs. Blood clots can be caused by anything that prevents your blood from circulating normally or clotting properly
Symptoms--Deep vein thrombosis signs and symptoms can include:
·         Swelling in the affected leg. Rarely, there may be swelling in both legs.
·         Pain in your leg. The pain often starts in your calf and can feel like cramping or a soreness.
Deep vein thrombosis may sometimes occur without any noticeable symptoms.
Risk factors-Many factors can increase your risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and the more you have, the greater your risk. Risk factors for DVT include:
Inheriting a blood-clotting disorder. Some people inherit a disorder that makes their blood clot more easily. This inherited condition may not cause problems unless combined with one or more other risk factors.
Prolonged bed rest, such as during a long hospital stay, or paralysis. When your legs remain still for long periods, your calf muscles don't contract to help blood circulate, which can increase the risk of blood clots.
Injury or surgery. Injury to your veins or surgery can increase the risk of blood clots.
Pregnancy. Pregnancy increases the pressure in the veins in your pelvis and legs. Women with an inherited clotting disorder are especially at risk. The risk of blood clots from pregnancy can continue for up to six weeks after you have your baby.
Birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Birth control pills (oral contraceptives) and hormone replacement therapy both can increase your blood's ability to clot.
Being overweight or obese. Being overweight increases the pressure in the veins in your pelvis and legs.
Smoking. Smoking affects blood clotting and circulation, which can increase your risk of DVT.
Cancer. Some forms of cancer increase the amount of substances in your blood that cause your blood to clot. Some forms of cancer treatment also increase the risk of blood clots.
Heart failure. People with heart failure have a greater risk of DVT and pulmonary embolism. Because people with heart failure already have limited heart and lung function, the symptoms caused by even a small pulmonary embolism are more noticeable.
Inflammatory bowel disease. Bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, increase the risk of DVT.
A personal or family history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (PE). If you or someone in your family has had DVT or PE before, you're more likely to develop DVT.
Age. Being over age 60 increases your risk of DVT, though it can occur at any age.
Sitting for long periods of time, such as when driving or flying. When your legs remain still for many hours, your calf muscles don't contract, which normally helps blood circulate. Blood clots can form in the calves of your legs if your calf muscles aren't moving for long periods.

 Complications--A concerning complication associated with deep vein thrombosis is pulmonary embolism.
Pulmonary embolism
A pulmonary embolism occurs when a blood vessel in your lung becomes blocked by a blood clot (thrombus) that travels to your lungs from another part of your body, usually your leg.
A pulmonary embolism can be fatal. So, it's important to be on the lookout for signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism and seek medical attention if they occur. Signs and symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include:
·         Unexplained sudden onset of shortness of breath
·         Chest pain or discomfort that worsens when you take a deep breath or when you cough
·         Feeling lightheaded or dizzy, or fainting
·         Rapid pulse
·         Coughing up blood
Postphlebitic syndrome
A common complication that can occur after deep vein thrombosis is a condition known as postphlebitic syndrome, also called postthrombotic syndrome. This syndrome is used to describe a collection of signs and symptoms, including:
·         Swelling of your legs (edema)
·         Leg pain
·         Skin discoloration
·         Skin sores
This syndrome is caused by damage to your veins from the blood clot. This damage reduces blood flow in the affected areas. The symptoms of postphlebitic syndrome may not occur until a few years after the DVT
Well selected Homoeopathic remedies are best for the treatment of Deep vein thrombosis. Some of the important remedies are given below.
ARNICA MONTANA 30- Arnica mon is one of the top remedies for thrombosis, it has the power of dissolving the thrombus and make the blood thin . Veins distended and there is numbness in feet. Bruised pain in leg as if beaten.

APIS MELLIFICA  30- Apis Mellifica is another excellent remedy for DVT with stinging pain ans swelling of legs. The feet swollen and stiff , sore, sensitive with stinging pain. There is also swelling of the knee, which is shiny, sensitive, sore with stinging pain.Legs and feet waxy, pale swollen and edematous. Limbs may feel heavy , numb and immovable.

BOTHOROPS  30-Bothorops is best for DVT after surgery, especially right side. Here the muscular tissues are filled with black blood. The leg veins are swollen and painful. The skin , swollen, livid , cold with hemorrhagic infiltration. Gangrene of affected part.

VIPERA 30-Vipera is excellent for DVT due to prolonged sitting. When the legs are allowed to hang down, it seems as if they would burst and the pain is unbearable. The patient is obliged to keep the limbs elevated.There is severe cramps in the lower limbs. The veins are swollen and sensitive due to severe pain.

HAMAMELIS VIRGINICA 30-Hemamelis is another excellent remedy for DVT with a bursting feeling in the legs. There is tired feeling in legs. Legs swollen with a tense, bursting feeling from pain. The joints also feel tense with pain.

LACHESIS 200- Lachesis is another excellent remedy for DVT with joint pain. There is cramps in the calves, especially left side with swelling in the ankles. There is a bluish swelling and pain  in joints. The knee joint feel cold as if hot air is going through.

CALCAREA IODATA 30-Calcarea iodata is best for DVT with indolent ulcers. There is tired feeling in lower extremities, especially in the calves. There is pain across the anterior surface of the upper third of both legs as if beaten. There is numbness along with dull heavy feeling in legs.

SECALE CORNUTUM 30-Secale cor is another excellent remedy for DVT with violent cramps.There is severe cramps in calves. Another stricking feature is icy coldness of limbs. There is numbness and violent pain in legs.

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