Stuttering — also called stammering or childhood-onset fluency disorder — is a speech disorder that involves frequent and significant problems with the normal fluency and flow of speech. People who stutter know what they want to say, but have difficulty saying it. For example, they may repeat or prolong a word, syllable or phrase, or stop during speech and make no sound for certain syllables.
Stuttering is common among young children as a normal part of learning to speak. Young children may stutter when their speech and language abilities aren't developed enough to keep up with what they want to say. Most children outgrow this developmental stuttering.
Sometimes, however, stuttering is a chronic condition that persists into adulthood. This type of stuttering can have an impact on self-esteem and interactions with other people.
If you're an adult who stutters, seek help if stuttering causes you stress or anxiety or affects your self-esteem, career or relationships. See your doctor or a speech-language pathologist, or search for a program designed to treat adult stuttering.
Children and adults who stutter may benefit from treatments such as speech therapy, psychological counseling or using electronic devices to improve speech patterns. After a comprehensive evaluation by a speech-language pathologist, a decision about the best treatment approach can be made.
Causes-- Researchers are still studying the underlying causes of persistent stuttering. A combination of factors may be involved. Possible causes of persistent stuttering include:
Abnormalities in speech motor control. Some evidence indicates that abnormalities in speech motor control, such as timing, sensory and motor coordination, are implicated.
Genetics. Stuttering tends to run in families. It appears that stuttering can result from inherited (genetic) abnormalities in the language centers of the brain.
Medical conditions. Stuttering can sometimes result from a stroke, trauma or other brain injury.
Mental health problems. In rare, isolated cases, emotional trauma can lead to stuttering

Symptoms-- Stuttering signs and symptoms may include:
·         Difficulty starting a word, sentence or phrase
·         Prolonging a word or sounds within a word
·         Repetition of a sound, syllable or word
·         Brief silence for certain syllables or pauses within a word (broken word)
·         Addition of extra words such as "um" if difficulty moving to the next word is anticipated
·         Excess tension, tightness or movement of the face or upper body to produce a word
·         Anxiety about talking
·         Limited ability to effectively communicate
The speech difficulties of stuttering may be accompanied by:
·         Rapid eye blinks
·         Tremors of the lips or jaw
·         Facial tics
·         Head jerks
·         Clenching fists
Stuttering may be worse when you're excited, tired or under stress, or when you feel self-conscious, hurried or pressured. Situations such as speaking in front of a group or talking on the phone can be particularly difficult for people who stutter.
However, most people who stutter can speak without stuttering when they talk to themselves and when they sing or speak in unison with someone else.
Risk factors-- Factors that increase the risk of stuttering include:
Having relatives who stutter. Stuttering tends to run in families.
Delayed childhood development. Children who have developmental delays or other speech problems may be more likely to stutter.
Being male. Males are much more likely to stutter than females are.
Stress. Stress in the family, high parental expectations or other types of pressure can worsen existing stuttering.

Complications- Stuttering can lead to:
·         Low self-esteem
·         Problems communicating with others
·         Not speaking or avoiding situations that require speaking
·         Loss of social, school or work participation and success
·         Being bullied or teased
·         Being anxious in social situations or being diagnosed with social anxiety disorder

Homoeopathic remedies works well in stammering .The appropriate medicine is selected on individual study. Moreover Homoeopathic medicines are natural and safe, having no side effects. Some of the important remedies are given below-

STRAMONIUM 200- Stramonium is one of the top remedies for stammering. Strammonium is prescribed   when a person has to exert strain for a long time before a word is uttered. Here the words seem to shoot out with harshness. There may be also facial contortions, and tics and a generally violent nature.

CAUSTICUM 200-Causticum is  indicated  for stammering  when a person is mentally or emotionally excited.It is also useful for stammering from paralytic condition of tongue. Causticum may be seen with hoarseness , chronic clearing of the throat , and twitches of the face, particularly of the right side.There may be paralysis of the vocal chords.

HYOSCYAMUS NIGER 200-Hyoscyamus should be tried when Stramonium fails. It is indicated when the patient doubts that he will not be able to speak correctly.

CALCAREA CARB. 1000—Calcarea carb. is prescribed when stammering with tongue large, heavy and hard palate occurs. It occurs usually in fat , flabby persons who catch cold easily. There is a particular craving for eggs  and undigestible things like chalk.

LACHESIS 200-Lachesis is an effective remedy for stammering and is indicated  when a person stammers over certain specific letters while speaking.

LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM 200-Lycopodium is one of the most effective Homeopathic medicines for stammering and shows remarkable results where a person stammers while speaking out the last words of a sentence.  Lycopodium is also greatly helpful for persons with a weak memory, indistinct sleep, lack of self confidence and poor self esteem. Fear of public speaking may also prevail among persons in need of Lycopodium.

SPIGELIA 30-Spigelia is another effective  medicine for stammering.Spigelia is indicated when  stammering on the first few words of a sentence followed by normal, clear, uninterrupted speech.Spigelia patients  repeats the first syllable around three to four times before he can go on to the next part of the sentence.

BUFO RANA 200- Bufo ranna is indicated when stammering occurs on account of extreme anger.

BOVISTA 200- Bovista is specially adapted to stammering in children and old maids.

MERCURIUS  30—Mercurius is effective for stammering wich comes out of hesitancy. There is trembling of the mouth and tongue. It is also prescribed when the person may feel quite agitated at being asked a question and become overly excited , hurried and embarrassed. There is an overall hesitancy, lack of confidence and shyness.

SELENIUM 200- Selenium is prescribed for stammering where the person makes mistakes in talking , says the wrong syllables and cannot articulate some words. This may be seen in Alzheimer’s disease.

LAC CANINUM 200-Lac caninum is best for stammering  and it is prescribed when  a person starts to stammer when he talks fast.

STAPHYSAGRIA 200-- Staphysagria is another best remedy for stammering  where stammering appears while talking to strangers.

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