Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Geographical distribution
Hepatitis B prevalence is highest in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, where between 5–10% of the adult population is chronically infected. High rates of chronic infections are also found in the Amazon and the southern parts of eastern and central Europe. In the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, an estimated 2–5% of the general population is chronically infected. Less than 1% of the population in Western Europe and North America is chronically infected.
The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not protected by the vaccine. The incubation period of the hepatitis B virus is 75 days on average, but can vary from 30 to 180 days. The virus may be detected within 30 to 60 days after infection and can persist and develop into chronic hepatitis B.
In highly endemic areas, hepatitis B is most commonly spread from mother to child at birth (perinatal transmission), or through horizontal transmission (exposure to infected blood), especially from an infected child to an uninfected child during the first 5 years of life. The development of chronic infection is very common in infants infected from their mothers or before the age of 5 years.
Hepatitis B is also spread by percutaneous or mucosal exposure to infected blood and various body fluids, as well as through saliva, menstrual, vaginal, and seminal fluids. Sexual transmission of hepatitis B may occur, particularly in unvaccinated men who have sex with men and heterosexual persons with multiple sex partners or contact with sex workers. Infection in adulthood leads to chronic hepatitis in less than 5% of cases. Transmission of the virus may also occur through the reuse of needles and syringes either in health-care settings or among persons who inject drugs. In addition, infection can occur during medical, surgical and dental procedures, tattooing, or through the use of razors and similar objects that are contaminated with infected blood.
Most people do not experience any symptoms during the acute infection phase. However, some people have acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. A small subset of persons with acute hepatitis can develop acute liver failure which can lead to death.
In some people, the hepatitis B virus can also cause a chronic liver infection that can later develop into cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer.
More than 90% of healthy adults who are infected with the hepatitis B virus will recover naturally from the virus within the first year.
Who is at risk for chronic disease?
The likelihood that infection with the virus becomes chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected. Children less than 6 years of age who become infected with the hepatitis B virus are the most likely to develop chronic infections.
In infants and children:
80–90% of infants infected during the first year of life develop chronic infections;
30–50% of children infected before the age of 6 years develop chronic infections.
In adults:
<5% of otherwise healthy persons who are infected as adults will develop chronic infection;
20–30% of adults who are chronically infected will develop cirrhosis and/or liver cancer

CHELIDONIUM  MAJUS 30- An excellent remedy for hepatitis B. Jaundice. Fermentation and sluggish bowels. Constriction across , as by a string. Liver enlarged. Prefers hot drinks and food.Nausea and vomiting , better by hot water. Pain through stomach to back and right shoulder blade
CROTALUS HORRIDUS  1M- Pin in the region of liver. Intolerance of clothing about epigastrium.Violent vomiting. Abdomen distended hot and tender
LYCOPODIUM  CLAVATUM 1M—It is considerd as a constitutional remedy. Likes warm food and drink. Eating ever so little creates fullness. Food tastes sour. Immediately after meal, abdomen is bloated full
PHOSPHORUS  CM—Give weekly one dose. Liver congested. Large yellow spots on abdomen. A  very weak, empty, gone sensation felt in whole abdominal cavity
SYPHYLLINUM  CM—Suicidal mania . Attempted suicide. Craves alcohol.
HEPATITIS B NOSODE 30 and HEPATITIS B VAC 30- Hepatitis B nosode is prepared from the virus. Hepatitis B vac  is prepared from  triturating Hepatitis B vaccine. Theser are considered as a specific in the treatment of Hepatitis B

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