A migraine can cause severe throbbing pain or a pulsing sensation, usually on just one side of the head. It's often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound.
Migraine attacks can cause significant pain for hours to days and can be so severe that the pain is disabling.
Warning symptoms known as aura may occur before or with the headache. These can include flashes of light, blind spots, or tingling on one side of the face or in your arm or leg.
Though migraine causes aren't understood, genetics and environmental factors appear to play a role.
Migraines may be caused by changes in the brainstem and its interactions with the trigeminal nerve, a major pain pathway.
Imbalances in brain chemicals — including serotonin, which helps regulate pain in your nervous system — also may be involved. Researchers are still studying the role of serotonin in migraines.
Serotonin levels drop during migraine attacks. This may cause your trigeminal nerve to release substances called neuropeptides, which travel to your brain's outer covering (meninges). The result is migraine pain. Other neurotransmitters play a role in the pain of migraine, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP).
Migraine triggers
A number of factors may trigger migraines, including:
Hormonal changes in women. Fluctuations in estrogen seem to trigger headaches in many women. Women with a history of migraines often report headaches immediately before or during their periods, when they have a major drop in estrogen.
Others have an increased tendency to develop migraines during pregnancy or menopause.
Hormonal medications, such as oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, also may worsen migraines. Some women, however, find their migraines occur less often when taking these medications.
Foods. Aged cheeses, salty foods and processed foods may trigger migraines. Skipping meals or fasting also can trigger attacks.
Food additives. The sweetener aspartame and the preservative monosodium glutamate (MSG), found in many foods, may trigger migraines.
Drinks. Alcohol, especially wine, and highly caffeinated beverages may trigger migraines.
Stress. Stress at work or home can cause migraines.
Sensory stimuli. Bright lights and sun glare can induce migraines, as can loud sounds. Strong smells — including perfume, paint thinner, secondhand smoke and others — can trigger migraines in some people.
Changes in wake-sleep pattern. Missing sleep or getting too much sleep may trigger migraines in some people, as can jet lag.
Physical factors. Intense physical exertion, including sexual activity, may provoke migraines.
Changes in the environment. A change of weather or barometric pressure can prompt a migraine.
Medications. Oral contraceptives and vasodilators, such as nitroglycerin, can aggravate migraines.
Migraines often begin in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood. Migraines may progress through four stages: prodrome, aura, headache and post-drome, though you may not experience all stages.
One or two days before a migraine, you may notice subtle changes that warn of an upcoming migraine, including:
·         Constipation
·         Mood changes, from depression to euphoria
·         Food cravings
·         Neck stiffness
·         Increased thirst and urination
·         Frequent yawning
Aura may occur before or during migraines. Most people experience migraines without aura.
Auras are symptoms of the nervous system. They are usually visual disturbances, such as flashes of light or wavy, zigzag vision.
Sometimes auras can also be touching sensations (sensory), movement (motor) or speech (verbal) disturbances. Your muscles may get weak, or you may feel as though someone is touching you.
Each of these symptoms usually begins gradually, builds up over several minutes and lasts for 20 to 60 minutes. Examples of migraine aura include:
·   Visual phenomena, such as seeing various shapes, bright spots or flashes of light
·   Vision loss
·   Pins and needles sensations in an arm or leg
·   Weakness or numbness in the face or one side of the body

·         Difficulty speaking
·         Hearing noises or music
·         Uncontrollable jerking or other movements
Sometimes, a migraine with aura may be associated with limb weakness (hemiplegic migraine).
A migraine usually lasts from four to 72 hours if untreated. The frequency with which headaches occur varies from person to person. Migraines may be rare, or strike several times a month. During a migraine, you may experience:
·   Pain on one side or both sides of your head
·   Pain that feels throbbing or pulsing
·   Sensitivity to light, sounds, and sometimes smells and touch
·   Nausea and vomiting
·   Blurred vision
·         Lightheadedness, sometimes followed by fainting
The final phase, known as post-drome, occurs after a migraine attack. You may feel drained and washed out, while some people feel elated. For about 24 hours, you may also experience:
·         Confusion
·         Moodiness
·         Dizziness
·         Weakness
·         Sensitivity to light and sound
Risk factors
Several factors make you more prone to having migraines, including:
Family history. If you have a family member with migraines, then you have a good chance of developing them too.
Age. Migraines can begin at any age, though the first often occurs during adolescence. Migraines tend to peak during your 30s, and gradually become less severe and less frequent in the following decades.
Sex. Women are three times more likely to have migraines. Headaches tend to affect boys more than girls during childhood, but by the time of puberty and beyond, more girls are affected.
Hormonal changes. If you are a woman who has migraines, you may find that your headaches begin just before or shortly after onset of menstruation.
They may also change during pregnancy or menopause. Migraines generally improve after menopause.
Some women report that migraine attacks begin during pregnancy, or their attacks worsen. For many, the attacks improved or didn't occur during later stages in the pregnancy. Migraines often return during the postpartum period
BELLADONNA 30-Belladonna is one of the best medicines for migraine with intense throbbing, pulsating headache. The person prescribed Belladonna will also feel an extreme fullness in the head. Light seems to worsen the headache. Noise is unbearable. In some cases, exposure to cold air can trigger a migraine episode. In others, a head bath with cold water can bring on migraine headache. Hard pressure over the head is the only way some relief is felt in such cases.

GLONOINUM 30- Glonoinum is  very effective for migraine with  excessive congestion in the head. The head feels very large, as if it would burst. In such a migraine attack, patients in pain are seen holding their head in hands. The eyeballs seem protruded. Extreme heaviness in head is felt. Also, heat around the head is unbearable. Uncovering the head relieves the headache. The migraine also gets better with sleep while walking worsens the migraine headache.  Glonoinum is also the most suitable Homeopathic medicine for migraine headache triggered by sun exposure.

DAMIANA Q-Damiana is the head remedy for migraine. It aborts migraine. Take 20 drops tincture in water during the attack. The patient sleeps after 2 doses.

SPIGELIA 30-Spigelia is a most effective Homeopathic medicine for left-sided migraine. It is indicated when the headache is located over the left temporal region, forehead and eyes. In most cases, the pain begins in occipital region of the head, extends upward and settles over the left eye. The pain is violent, throbbing and pulsating in nature. There is a sensation of a tight band around the head. Stooping seems to worsen the headache. Severe pain in the eyeballs may attend. Eye movement worsens this pain.

SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS 30-Sanguinaria Canadensis is an effective  Homeopathic medicine for right-sided migraine. The pain starts from the back of head i.e. occiput, ascends and settles over the right eye. Lying down quietly in a dark room brings relief. In some cases, sleep may relieve pain. Fasting (going without meals) often triggers a migraine headache in persons prescribed Homeopathic medicine Sanguinaria Canadensis. It is also the medicine to prescribe when the headache starts in the morning, increases during the day and lasts until sunset. Sanguinaria Canadensis is a significant Homeopathic medicine for migraine in women during menopause.

IRIS VERSICOLOR 30-Iris Versicolor is  prescribed for migraine  when attended with intense nausea, vomiting or acidity. Burning may be noted in any part of alimentary canal. Vomiting of acidic, sour, bitter nature is observed. Bitter, acrid, belching with intense burning behind sternum and in throat is well marked. Acidic stomach reflux leads to headaches. Headache with diarrhoea signals prescription of Iris Versicolor. This medicine is also useful where migraine begins with a blur before the eyes.

GELSEMIUM 30-Gelsemium is effective for migraine headache which is triggered by eyestrain. The pain gegins from the back of the head and travels upwards to settle over the forehead or the eye. There may be blindness of vision or other visual disturbances found before the headache. Pains are predominantly on the right side. The eye feels sore which increases on motion. The headache and eye troubles are relieved by profuse urination. The patient feels as if a band or hood is tightly around the  head giving a dragging sensation at the back of the head. The heaviness and soreness is so profound that the patient is unable to hold the head up. Sleep relieves the headache.

NUX VOMICA 30-Nux Vomica is a very effective Homeopathic medicine for migraine with gastric troubles. Migraine due to indigestion, flatulence, constipation and piles shows great recovery with use of Homeopathic medicine Nux Vomica. Nux Vomica also helps where migraine headache gets worse after taking coffee, spicy food and alcoholic drinks. The headache may be located in any part of the head. The person feels the need to press the head against something hard for relief.

NATRUM CARBONICUM 30-Ntrum carb. is another effective medicine for migraine headache from sun exposure. Vertigo appears along with headache from sun exposure in such cases. The pressive headache is accompanied by cloudiness of eyes. Heat in the head and congestion may be felt. Shooting pain in the forehead also suggests use of Natrum Carbonicum.

NATRUM MURIATICUM 30- Natrum Muriaticum is the best Homoeopathic medicines for migraine attacks that worsen during menses. The headache may be triggered before, during or at the close of menstrual cycle. The  migraine headache that starts with sunrise, continues through the day and vanishes after sunset. The   migraine headache feels like little hammers knocking on the brain . Natrum Muriaticum is also the most suitable prescription for migraine headaches in school girls or in girls who are anaemic. It is also considered the best medicine where numbness or tingling is felt in the nose, tongue or lips before the migraine attack

SEPIA 30-Sepia is an excellent Homeopathic medicine for migraine attacks in women during menopause. In such cases, terrible headaches accompany menopause. The headache gets worse indoors, open air brings relief. Nausea and vomiting may attend migraine headaches. Lying on the painful side of head affords relief. The top of the head may feel cool in such cases. In general, hot flushes, sometimes along with sweat, are well marked.

KALI PHOS 30-Kali phos is the best medicine for migraine headache triggered by stress. Stress, tensions and worry lead to migraine headaches. Such migraine headaches are common among students who suffer school or college related stress. Exhaustion and weakness usually accompany migraine in such cases.

EPIPHEGUS 30-Epiphegus is a valuable Homeopathic medicine for treating migraine where it is triggered by  mental or physical exertion . It is used where the slightest deviation from routine work brings on a migraine attack. Although it works for both sided migraine, yet comparatively better results are seen in left-sided headaches with Epiphegus. A peculiar attending symptom is increased saliva with constant inclination to spit.

CYCLAMEN 30- Cyclamen is  indicated for migraine attacks that begin with flickering, fiery sparks before the eyes or dim vision. These visual symptoms that precede the migraine headache are referred to as aura. Cyclamen is also useful where migraine headache starts on rising in the morning. Shooting pain is experienced in the temporal region. Vertigo, especially when standing, may accompany the headache.

CANNABIS INDICA 200- Cannabis Indica is one of the remedies for migraine headache. It can decrease the pain and distress. There is a sensation as if the top of the head was opening and shutting . Flatulence. There is throbbing in the occiput triggered by unusual excitement. Worse from coffee, liquor, and smoking and better by rest

ONOSMODIUM 30-Onosmodium is prescribed for migraine headache when it is triggered by eyestrain and sexual excesses.

SILICEA 200-Silicea is an effective medicine for migraine when the pain begins at the back of the neck and spreads forward over the whole head, affecting the eyes. Feels as if the head might burst. May have sharp pains moving through the eyes, causing blurred vision, sensitivity to light, dizziness ,especially when looking up. Cannot tolerate alcohol. Person feels anxious and nervous and cannot stand noise or cold air. Might want to tie something tight around the head for relief.

BRYONIA 200- Bryonia is prescribed for migraine headache  when the headache begins in the back of the neck and moves to the front of the head, remaining over the forehead and eyes. Head feels like it is bursting or splitting, is very sore to move, and eyes feel painful and worse for the slightest movement. May feel dizzy and even nauseous, with a great thirst for long drinks.

CHIONANTHUS Q- Chionanthus is prescribed when migraine due to acidity and sluggishness.

CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA 30-Cimicifuga racemosa is prescribed when the pains are like electric shocks and worse during menses. More the flow more the suffering .Pain is better by warmth and eating. Sensation of opening and shutting in the brain.



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