Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood's chemical makeup may get out of balance.
Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over a few hours or a few days. Acute kidney failure is most common in people who are already hospitalized, particularly in critically ill people who need intensive care.
Acute kidney failure can be fatal and requires intensive treatment. However, acute kidney failure may be reversible. If you're otherwise in good health, you may recover normal or nearly normal kidney function.
Causes-Acute kidney failure can occur when:
·         You have a condition that slows blood flow to your kidneys
·         You experience direct damage to your kidneys
·         Your kidneys' urine drainage tubes (ureters) become blocked and wastes can't leave your body through your urine
Impaired blood flow to the kidneys
Diseases and conditions that may slow blood flow to the kidneys and lead to kidney failure include:
·         Blood or fluid loss
·         Blood pressure medications
·         Heart attack
·         Heart disease
·         Infection
·         Liver failure
·         Use of aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen (Aleve, others) or related drugs
·         Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
·         Severe burns
·         Severe dehydration
Damage to the kidneys
These diseases, conditions and agents may damage the kidneys and lead to acute kidney failure:
·         Blood clots in the veins and arteries in and around the kidneys
·         Cholesterol deposits that block blood flow in the kidneys
·         Glomerulonephritis , inflammation of the tiny filters in the kidneys (glomeruli)
·         Hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that results from premature destruction of red blood cells
·         Infection
·         Lupus, an immune system disorder causing glomerulonephritis
·         Medications, such as certain chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, dyes used during imaging tests and zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa), used to treat osteoporosis and high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia)
·         Multiple myeloma, a cancer of the plasma cells
·         Scleroderma, a group of rare diseases affecting the skin and connective tissues
·         Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a rare blood disorder
·         Toxins, such as alcohol, heavy metals and cocaine
·         Vasculitis, an inflammation of blood vessels
Urine blockage in the kidneys
Diseases and conditions that block the passage of urine out of the body (urinary obstructions) and can lead to acute kidney failure include:
·         Bladder cancer
·         Blood clots in the urinary tract
·         Cervical cancer
·         Colon cancer
·         Enlarged prostate
·         Kidney stones
·         Nerve damage involving the nerves that control the bladder
·         Prostate cancer
Symptoms--Signs and symptoms of acute kidney failure may include:
·         Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal
·         Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet
·         Drowsiness
·         Shortness of breath
·         Fatigue
·         Confusion
·         Nausea
·         Seizures or coma in severe cases
·         Chest pain or pressure
Sometimes acute kidney failure causes no signs or symptoms and is detected through lab tests done for another reason.
Risk factors--Acute kidney failure almost always occurs in connection with another medical condition or event. Conditions that can increase your risk of acute kidney failure include:
·         Being hospitalized, especially for a serious condition that requires intensive care
·         Advanced age
·         Blockages in the blood vessels in your arms or legs (peripheral artery disease)
·         Diabetes
·         High blood pressure
·         Heart failure
·         Kidney diseases
·         Liver diseases
Complications-Potential complications of acute kidney failure include:
Fluid buildup. Acute kidney failure may lead to a buildup of fluid in your lungs, which can cause shortness of breath.
Chest pain. If the lining that covers your heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed, you may experience chest pain.
Muscle weakness. When your body's fluids and electrolytes — your body's blood chemistry — are out of balance, muscle weakness can result. Elevated levels of potassium in your blood are particularly dangerous.
Permanent kidney damage. Occasionally, acute kidney failure causes permanent loss of kidney function, or end-stage renal disease. People with end-stage renal disease require either permanent dialysis — a mechanical filtration process used to remove toxins and wastes from the body — or a kidney transplant to survive.
Death. Acute kidney failure can lead to loss of kidney function and, ultimately, death. The risk of death is higher in people who had kidney problems before acute kidney failure.
Diagnosis-If your signs and symptoms suggest that you have acute kidney failure, your doctor may recommend certain tests and procedures to verify your diagnosis. These may include:
Urine output measurements. The amount of urine you excrete in a day may help your doctor determine the cause of your kidney failure.
Urine tests. Analyzing a sample of your urine, a procedure called urinalysis, may reveal abnormalities that suggest kidney failure.
Blood tests. A sample of your blood may reveal rapidly rising levels of urea and creatinine — two substances used to measure kidney function.
Imaging tests. Imaging tests such as ultrasound and computerized tomography may be used to help your doctor see your kidneys.
Removing a sample of kidney tissue for testing. In some situations, your doctor may recommend a kidney biopsy to remove a small sample of kidney tissue for lab testing. Your doctor inserts a needle through your skin and into your kidney to remove the sample.
Homoeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world.Its strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When Kidney failure   is concerned there are many effective medicines are available in Homoeopathy, but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient, considering the mental and physical symptoms.

CUPRUM ARSENITUM 3x-Cuprum ars is also a very effective remedy for  Renal failure with high level of creatinine in blood. There is kidney inefficiency and uremia. The urine smell like garlic. Urine of high specific gravity increased, acetones and diacetic acid.

CUPRUM ACETICUM 3X- In Cuprum aceticum the tongue is pale , coated with lot of mucus. Anemia. Pulse rapid. The patient is chilly. Breathlessness with dry cough. Cannot eat or drink without retching.

SERUM ANGUILLAE 6X—Serum Anguilae is one of the best remedies for high level of creatinine in blood with renal failure. It is very effective in acute nephritis. Kidney failure. It is prescribed when hypertension and oliguria without oedema is present. Urine contains albumin.

ARALIA HISPIDA 30-Aralia hispida is found to be effective for high level of creatinine in blood. There is dropsy of renal origin. Urinary tract infection is present. Urine is scanty leading to complete suppression of urine. Renal diseases with constipation.

AMPELOPSIS QUINQUEFOLIA 30- Ampelopsis quinquefolia is another effective remedy for high level of creatinine in blood. There is uraemia or uremic coma. Vomiting, purging, tenesmus , cold sweat and collapse are the leading symptoms. 

ARSENICUM ALBUM- 30-Arsenic alb. Is also an effective remedy for renal failure with high level of creatinine in blood. Urine is scanty, burning when urinating. Albuminuria. Epithelial cells, cylindrical clots of fibrin and globules of pus and blood in urine. Feeling weakness in abdomen after urination.Retention of urine.Urine black as if mixed with dung.

LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM 30—Lycopodium is an effective remedy for high level of creatinine in blood. Urine scanty , cries before urinating, red sand in urine, must strain, suppressed or retained. Urine milky and turbid. Sometimes haematuria . Urine is burning and hot. The right kidney is mainly affected. The patient experiences impotency.The patient likes warm food and drink, also there is intense craving for sweets.

APIS MELLIFICA 3x- Apis mel is another effective remedy where edematous swellings of face and extremities are present with thirstlessness.. Urination frequent but scanty. There is a feeling of suffocation and breathing difficult. All symptoms are worsen from heat and better from cold.

CANTHARIS 30- Cantharis is best for kidney failure where uremic delusions with sens of persecution is found. There is suppression of urine with restlessness, flushed face and sparkling eyes. The patient has an urge to pass urine but nothing is voided, there being no urine in bladder.

TEREBINTH 30- Terebinth is prescribed where uremia with spasms and lock jaw is present which may be occurring every 15 minutes. There is violent convulsions producing most frightful opisthotonos.

HELLEBORUS NIGER 30- Hellebotus is best for high creatinine in blood with remia and unconsciousness. Pupils dilated and insensible to light. Convulsion is present. The body have a strong urinous odor.

UREA 30—Urea is prescribed where uremia is present. Urine is thin and of low specific gravity.

BELLADONNA 30- Belladonna is used in the acute stage where uremia  occurs in healthy patients when kidney ceases to function and urine becomes dark and turbid. There is twitching of the muscles with violent convulsions.

MERCURIUS CORROSIVUS 30—Merc cor is effective for acute renal failure with albuminous urine, which is scanty , hot, burning ,passed drop by drop or suppressed , bloody, greenish discharge.Tenesmus of bladder. There is stabbing pain extending up urethra into bladder.There are severe lumbar pain and dyspnoea.

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