Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.
Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. Symptoms sometimes lessen with age. However, some people never completely outgrow their ADHD symptoms. But they can learn strategies to be successful.
Causes-- While the exact cause of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not clear, research efforts continue. Factors that may be involved in the development of ADHD include:
Genetics. ADHD can run in families, and studies indicate that genes may play a role.
Environment. Certain environmental factors, such as lead exposure, may increase risk.
Development. Problems with the central nervous system at key moments in development may play a role.
Symptoms--- The primary features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder include inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. ADHD symptoms start before age 12, and in some children, they're noticeable as early as 3 years of age. ADHD symptoms can be mild, moderate or severe, and they may continue into adulthood.
ADHD occurs more often in males than in females, and behaviors can be different in boys and girls. For example, boys may be more hyperactive and girls may tend to be quietly inattentive.
There are three subtypes of ADHD:
Predominantly inattentive. The majority of symptoms fall under inattention.
Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive. The majority of symptoms are hyperactive and impulsive.
Combined. The most common type in the U.S., this is a mix of inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms.
A child who shows a pattern of inattention may often:
· Fail to pay close attention to details or make careless mistakes in schoolwork
· Have trouble staying focused in tasks or play
· Appear not to listen, even when spoken to directly
· Have difficulty following through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork or chores
· Have trouble organizing tasks and activities
· Avoid or dislike tasks that require focused mental effort, such as homework
· Lose items needed for tasks or activities, for example, toys, school assignments, pencils
· Be easily distracted
· Forget to do some daily activities, such as forgetting to do chores
Hyperactivity and impulsivity
A child who shows a pattern of hyperactive and impulsive symptoms may often:
· Fidget with or tap his or her hands or feet, or squirm in the seat
· Have difficulty staying seated in the classroom or in other situations
· Be on the go, in constant motion
· Run around or climb in situations when it's not appropriate
· Have trouble playing or doing an activity quietly
· Talk too much
· Blurt out answers, interrupting the questioner
· Have difficulty waiting for his or her turn
· Interrupt or intrude on others' conversations, games or activities
In addition, a child with ADHD has:
· Symptoms for at least six months
· Several symptoms that negatively affect school, home life or relationships in more than one setting, such as at home and at school
· Behaviors that aren't normal for children the same age who don't have ADHD
Risk factors-------Risk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may include:
· Blood relatives, such as a parent or sibling, with ADHD or another mental health disorder
· Exposure to environmental toxins — such as lead, found mainly in paint and pipes in older buildings
· Maternal drug use, alcohol use or smoking during pregnancy
· Premature birth
Although sugar is a popular suspect in causing hyperactivity, there's no reliable proof of this. Many issues in childhood can lead to difficulty sustaining attention, but that's not the same as ADHD
Complications---Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder can make life difficult for children. Children with ADHD:
· Often struggle in the classroom, which can lead to academic failure and judgment by other children and adults
· Tend to have more accidents and injuries of all kinds than do children who don't have ADHD
· Tend to have poor self-esteem
· Are more likely to have trouble interacting with and being accepted by peers and adults
· Are at increased risk of alcohol and drug abuse and other delinquent behavior
ADHD doesn't cause other psychological or developmental problems. However, children with ADHD are more likely than others to also have conditions such as:
Learning disabilities, including problems with understanding and communicating
Anxiety disorders, which may cause overwhelming worry, nervousness
Depression, which frequently occurs in children with ADHD
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, characterized by irritability and problems tolerating frustration
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), generally defined as a pattern of negative, defiant and hostile behavior toward authority figures
Conduct disorder, marked by antisocial behavior such as stealing, fighting, destroying property, and harming people or animals
Bipolar disorder, which includes depression as well as manic behavior
Tourette syndrome, a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive muscle or vocal tics
Homoeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world.Its strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When ADHD is concerned there are many effective medicines are available in Homoeopathy, but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient, considering the mental and physical symptoms.
---------Chamomilla is an excellent medicine in cases of extreme abusiveness in children. The child may be extremely restless and may cry continuously. The child keeps demanding one thing after the other and refuses when given. There may be temper tantrum on every little thing. The child cannot tolerate if anyone tries to speak to him. The child may be extremely abusive and complaining. The child cannot take no for an answer and may keep moaning continuously because he is being refused things that he demands. Chamomilla may be given in children who get extremely abusive and violent when anyone interrupts him
The child may be very cross and irritable and hates when touched. Children who don’t want to be carried, talked to or touched. They may turn away from strangers. The child bores his face in his mother’s lap and cries incessantly. The child desires many things but rejects everything when offered. Cina may be prescribed in children who suffer from worm infestations
------- The child is excessively irritable and crossed. Any attempt to please the child fails. Nothing seems to satisfy the child. There is much brooding and the child doesn’t want to speak. The child gets angry when someone looks at him. Antim crud may be prescribed in children who are extremely short tempered without any relevant cause.
Veartrum Album is an indicated remedy in children who throw temper tantrums. There may be extreme mood swings and crankiness may alternate with a submissive behavior. The child may scream and curse when angry. Veratrum alb may be prescribed in children who get physically violent when angry. There may be an unusual tendency to tear or cut things during bouts of anger. The child may sit in an awkward position and become totally incommunicable.
The child may be very quarrelsome and abusive. He may hurl verbal abuses at everyone around him. There may be constant grumbling and muttering due to irritation. The child may be extremely impatient and talkative. Hyocyamus may be prescribed when the child make fun of other children and is extremely insulting. There may be an unusual tendency to find fault. There is much dejection and despair. The child may be insensitive to others feelings.
Natrum Mur is useful in cases of ADHD children who are extremely weepy and cross. They refuse to be consoled and weep more on consolation. The child is generally well behaved and may be suppressed for a long time. Due to prolonged suppression, there may piling up of the emotions. Suddenly, the child just explodes with angry bouts. The child prefers to be left alone to cry. There is much awkwardness and hasty behaviour. Natrum mur is effective when the child gets irritated with trifle things.
-----Tuberculinum is suitable when the child is restless who seek constant stimulation or change. It helps in reducing destructive behavior, irritability, and feeling of dissatisfaction.---------One dose every week