Diphtheria  is a serious bacterial infection usually affecting the mucous membranes of your nose and throat. Diphtheria typically causes a sore throat, fever, swollen glands and weakness. But the hallmark sign is a sheet of thick, gray material covering the back of your throat, which can block your airway, causing you to struggle for breath.
Diphtheria is extremely rare in the United States and other developed countries, thanks to widespread vaccination against the disease.
Medications are available to treat diphtheria. However, in advanced stages, diphtheria can damage your heart, kidneys and nervous system. Even with treatment, diphtheria can be deadly — up to 3 percent of people who get diphtheria die of it. The rate is higher for children under 15.
Causes --The bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria. Usually C. diphtheriae multiply on or near the surface of the mucous membranes of the throat. C. diphtheriae spreads via three routes:
Airborne droplets. When an infected person's sneeze or cough releases a mist of contaminated droplets, people nearby may inhale C. diphtheriae. Diphtheria spreads efficiently this way, particularly in crowded conditions.
Contaminated personal items. People occasionally catch diphtheria from handling an infected person's used tissues, drinking from the person's unwashed glass, or coming into similarly close contact with other items on which bacteria-laden secretions may be deposited.
Contaminated household items. In rare cases, diphtheria spreads on shared household items, such as towels or toys.
You can also come in contact with diphtheria-causing bacteria by touching an infected wound.
People who have been infected by the diphtheria bacteria and who haven't been treated can infect nonimmunized people for up to six weeks — even if they don't show any symptoms.
Symptoms--Diphtheria signs and symptoms usually begin two to five days after a person becomes infected and may include:
·         A thick, gray membrane covering your throat and tonsils
·         A sore throat and hoarseness
·         Swollen glands (enlarged lymph nodes) in your neck
·         Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing
·         Nasal discharge
·         Fever and chills
·         Malaise
In some people, infection with diphtheria-causing bacteria causes only a mild illness — or no obvious signs and symptoms at all. Infected people who remain unaware of their illness are known as carriers of diphtheria, because they can spread the infection without being sick themselves.
HOMOEOPATHIC REMEDIES                                                                       
DIPHTHERINUM 200- Start treatment with this remedy. Give thrice daily , for only one day.

APIS MEL. 30- Apis mel is indicated when there is oedema of the throat , with stinging pains, ot it may be violent or may be painless. Aggravation from heat.There may be blisters on the border of the tongue. Drowsiness and dullness. Enlarged vulva . Puffy, glossy, bright red parts. Scaty urine, puffiness about face.

BROMIUM 30- Bromium is very effective for diphtheria. It is due to overheating or by wrapping the child in the summer or at night. Here the membranes from the pharynx. It initially begins in the bronchi, trachea or larynx and then ascends upwards. There is membranous croup with much rattling of mucus during cough, but there is no choking. It sounds loose but there is no expectoration . The patient experiences chest pain which is running upwards. There is a peculiar symptom, coldness in larynx on inspiration which is better after shaving which is indicative in adults.

CROTALUS HORRIDUS 30-Crotalus hor. Is indicated in malignant diphtheria with haemorrhagic tendency. There is persistent bleeding from the nose. Blood coming from the nose and mouth escaping from mucus  membranes of the buccal cavity.Bleeding from every orifices of body, even sweat is bloody. There is edema of fauces and tonsils. There is dysphagia, but is more when empty swallowing. Another indication is the intensely swollen tongue which is fiery red, smooth and polished.

KALI BICHROMICUM 30- Kali bichromicum is an excellent remedy for diphtheria. Here the patch is firm, fibrinous and pearly white in colour, develops in fauces, tonsils or phaynx and the it descends down to larynx and trachea. There is associated croup with violent rattling and gagging. The discharge is characteristic tough , stringy , ropy mucus from throat or nose which adheres to part and can be drawn in to long strings. The pains are sticking , and confined to small spots in each instance. Tongue coated thick like yellowish brown fur, uvula  relaxed with sensation of plug in throat.

LACHESIS 200-Lachesis is another excellent remedy for diphtheria. The discharge from the nose which is acrid. Throat dark red, grey deep with bluish tinge. Membrane more marked on the left , after that affection going to the right. There is swelling of glands around neck, drowsiness feebleness of pulse . Cold extremities. Worse after sleep. Swallowing liquid or saliva very painful.Symptoms are aggravated from hot drinks.

LAC CANINUM 200-Unlike Lachesis it changes sides starting on one side , frequently the left. The soreness and swelling suddenly shifts to the opposite side only to return in a few hours to the starting point. The membrane is greyish, yellow and curdy. If ulcers are formed they show like silver glass . Paralysis of the throat so that the fluids return by the nose when drinking. There is constant inclination to swallow but is painful and almost impossible , pains extend to ear. It aggravates by empty swallowing.

LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM 200-In Lycopodium dyptheritic membrane arises in right side and then the left one is affected. The patch may also arise from the nose then it descends to right tonsil. All symptoms are aggravated from 4-8 pm. The child awakes from sleep frightened or cross and angry. Fan like motion of alae nasi is the leading symptom. Feeling of contraction in throat, nothing goes down. Food and drink regurgitate through the nose.

MERCURIUS CYANATUS 1000- Merc cyan. Is prescribed in cases of malignant diphtheria with intensely red fauces and great difficulty in swallowing. Pseudo membranous deposit extends all over the throat and fauces. Very putrid and gangrenous diphtheria. Patient is excessively weak, cannot even get to his feet. In cases of epidemic it can be used as an effective remedy. If given before exudation is deposited , it will prevent it to appear at all. Here 30x potency works.

PHYTOLACCA DEC. 30-Throat dark red in colour, uvula large, dropsical and almost translucent . Membrane ash coloured. Sensation of a lump in throat with constant desire to swallow. Buring in throat like a coal of fire or a red hot iron with dryness. Pain shoot from throat in to ear on swallowing, great pain in root of tongue on swallowing.
NAJA TRI. 30- Naja tri. Is indicated when there is an impending paralysis of the heart. The patient is blue and awakened from sleep gasping. It is more indicated when the larynx is also affected.


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