Goiter  is an abnormal enlargement of your thyroid gland. Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck just below your Adam's apple. Although goiters are usually painless, a large goiter can cause a cough and make it difficult for you to swallow or breathe.
The most common cause of goiter worldwide is a lack of iodine in the diet. In the United States, where the use of iodized salt is common, a goiter is more often due to the over- or underproduction of thyroid hormones or to nodules that develop in the gland itself.
Treatment depends on the size of the goiter, your symptoms and the underlying cause. Small goiters that aren't noticeable and don't cause problems usually don't need treatment
Causes-- Your thyroid gland produces two main hormones — thyroxine (T-4) and triiodothyronine (T-3).
These hormones circulate in your bloodstream and help regulate your metabolism. They maintain the rate at which your body uses fats and carbohydrates, help control your body temperature, influence your heart rate, and help regulate the production of proteins. Your thyroid gland also produces calcitonin — a hormone that helps regulate the amount of calcium in your blood.
Your pituitary gland and hypothalamus control the rate at which these hormones are produced and released.
The process begins when the hypothalamus — an area at the base of your brain that acts as a thermostat for your whole system — signals your pituitary gland to make a hormone known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Your pituitary gland — also located at the base of your brain — releases a certain amount of TSH, depending on how much thyroxine and T-3 are in your blood. Your thyroid gland, in turn, regulates its production of hormones based on the amount of TSH it receives from the pituitary gland.
Having a goiter doesn't necessarily mean that your thyroid gland isn't working normally. Even when it's enlarged, your thyroid may produce normal amounts of hormones. It might also, however, produce too much or too little thyroxine and T-3.
A number of factors can cause your thyroid gland to enlarge. Among the most common are:
Iodine deficiency. Iodine, which is essential for the production of thyroid hormones, is found primarily in seawater and in the soil in coastal areas. In the developing world, people who live inland or at high elevations are often iodine deficient and can develop goiter when the thyroid enlarges in an effort to obtain more iodine. The initial iodine deficiency may be made even worse by a diet high in hormone-inhibiting foods, such as cabbage, broccoli and cauliflower.
Although a lack of dietary iodine is the main cause of goiter in many parts of the world, this is not often the case in countries where iodine is routinely added to table salt and other foods.
Graves' disease. Goiter can sometimes occur when your thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism). In Graves' disease, antibodies produced by your immune system mistakenly attack your thyroid gland, causing it to produce excess thyroxine. This overstimulation causes the thyroid to swell.
Hashimoto's disease. Goiter can also result from an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Like Graves' disease, Hashimoto's disease is an autoimmune disorder. But instead of causing your thyroid to produce too much hormone, Hashimoto's damages your thyroid so that it produces too little.
Sensing a low hormone level, your pituitary gland produces more TSH to stimulate the thyroid, which then causes the gland to enlarge.
Multinodular goiter. In this condition, several solid or fluid-filled lumps called nodules develop in both sides of your thyroid, resulting in overall enlargement of the gland.
Solitary thyroid nodules. In this case, a single nodule develops in one part of your thyroid gland. Most nodules are noncancerous (benign) and don't lead to cancer.
Thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is far less common than benign thyroid nodules. Cancer of the thyroid often appears as an enlargement on one side of the thyroid.
Pregnancy. A hormone produced during pregnancy, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), may cause your thyroid gland to enlarge slightly.
Inflammation. Thyroiditis is an inflammatory condition that can cause pain and swelling in the thyroid. It may also cause an over- or underproduction of thyroxine.
Symptoms---Not all goiters cause signs and symptoms. When signs and symptoms do occur they may include:
·         A visible swelling at the base of your neck that may be particularly obvious when you shave or put on makeup
·         A tight feeling in your throat
·         Coughing
·         Hoarseness
·         Difficulty swallowing
·         Difficulty breathing

IODUM 1000Iodum is the top remedy for goitre. It is more suitable to spare dark, active patients. There is marked hardness with sensation of constriction is present. Enlargement of the two lobes occurs, tumour becoming more swollen and painful at return of each menses.Grandular increase in size , especially right side , soft and without any fluctuation .Nonlobulated tumour in interior and medium portion of the size as large as a child’s head, rosy red, heavy in weight and soft is cured by this remedy. Goitre soft with heat and rapid pulse. Iodum patient feel excessive palpitation which get worse from even slight exertion. Extreme weakness is a common symptom described by patients and the weakness is mainly felt on going upstairs. This Homeopathic remedy  is mainly prescribed for patients of Hyperthyroidism who lose weight quickly despite having a good appetite. Such patients need something to eat at very short intervals and always feel better while eating. Feeling excessive heat in body and wanting to stay in a cool environment are the other symptoms. Mentally the person is very anxious about present issues and not about future.

BROMIUM 1000- When Iodum fails , this remedy should be tried in high dilutions. There is enlarge ment of glands with softness. Cannot lies on right side because of palpitation is a leading symptom of this remedy. The Spongia patient is light complexioned, scrofulous and is buoyant and cheerful.

THYROIDINUM 3X—Thyroidinum may be tried if Iodum and Bromium fails.

NATRUM MURIATICUM 1000--Natrum Muriaticum is a another effective medicine for goitre,  mainly for patients who are irritated very easily and get upset over little things. The person remains depressed with weeping when alone and it always gets aggravated when someone tries to console. The persons requiring this medicine feel very hot and cannot bear the heat of sun. They suffer from severe headaches when exposed to sun. An unusual craving for salt in excess is always present in a person who is recommended this Homeopathic medicine. Another important symptom guiding  is when a Hyperthyroid patient keeps on losing weight despite having regular and proper meals. The person looks very weak, especially around the neck region. The patient feels very weak especially in morning when in bed. The heart rate slows down when using a stethoscope and accelerates when the pulse rate is counted.  This medicine can also help in regularising the menstrual cycle in women with Hyperthyroidism whose menses remain suppressed for too long.It is very effective in early stages.

LACHESIS 200-Lachesis should be thought of during early stages.It mainly affects the left side. Lachesis  is of great help for patients  who suffer from the sensation of the body feeling extremely hot. Such patients cannot wear tight clothes and always keep their collars around the neck and the belt around the waist loose.  The mental symptoms that are usually considered are sadness with an aversion to do any kind of work. The person does not wish to mix up and wants to go somewhere alone. Excessive talkativeness is a leading mind symptom for the use of  Lachesis . It is also the remedy for women of menopause age suffering from Hyperthyroidism. The women complain of excessive hot flushes and palpitations along with slight tremor. . The menstrual flow is very less and the duration is also short. Feeling of wellness during menses is an important feature for its use in women. Another leading feature is complaint of pounding of heart or palpitations with episodes of fainting. Worsening of the condition during sleep is a prominent symptom of this remedy.

SPONGIA TOSTA  30- Spongia Tosta is recommended when  the thyroid gland is much enlarged, causing suffocating spells at night.It is suitable for painful goitre. There is asthma with amenorrhea. Pain on swallowing is another indication of this remedy. Spogia is suitable for goitre in inhabitants of valleys. It has the complexion and glandular enlargement of Bromium and the mental anxiety and low vitality of Iodum.

LYCOPODIUM CLAVATUM 200-Lycopodium Clavatum  for swelling of thyroid gland on the right side. The part is tense, smooth, having a shining appearance with feeling of constrition in tumour although not very large. The patient prefer hot food and drinks and  desires sweets.

FUCUS VESICULOSIS Q—Fucus is suitable for thyroid enlargement in obese persons. There is indigestion, flatulency and constipation.

CALCAREA CARB. 200- Calcarea carb is indicated in fat, flabby persons with sweating on the head and neck. There is peculiar craving for eggs.

CALCAREA IODATA 30- Calcarea iodate is indicated for thyroid enlargement at the time of puberty.

LAPIS ALBUS 6X—Lapis albus is affective for goitre when goitre with burning and stinging ppin breasts, stomach and uterus is present. Scrofulous enlargement of glands. Glands have a certain elasticity and pliability.

LYCOPUS VIRGINICUS 3X-Exopthalmic goitre with heart trouble and breathlessness.

CONIUM MACULATUM 200-Conium Maculatum is a very  effective  remedy for goitre patients  who are very depressed and do not take any interest in work. The patient gets irritated easily and suffers from weakness of memory. This  medicine works well for patients who experience trembling in hands along with perspiration on hands. Conium Maculatum is also a useful Homeopathic cure for menstrual problems faced by women due to Hyperthyroidism where the menses appear late and that too for a  short time and are very scanty in nature.

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